TITLE: Cataphora – lulus brevicum, for solo voice (2009) cataphora cover 2018_w border
CAT# (YEAR COMPOSED): 82. 2018 revision (Urtext 2009)
INSTRUMENTATION: solo voice, in low tessitura
PAGES: 32 (15 front material; 17 score)
DURATION (APPROX): 17’10
PREMIERE PERFORMANCE: Jan Heinke, 7. Internationale Obertontage „Lauschrausch“, 11-13. September 2009 [Freitag 11. 09. 2009, 19.30 Uhr at The Blechner (Dresden, Germany)]. Review by Jens Mügge, Overtone Music Network, “It was exciting when Jan Heinke premiered a piece of the composer Michael Edward Edgerton. Composed specially for these Overtone Days – great thanks to the Saxon Cultural Foundation – the audience was treated to an impressive, contemporary vocal solo piece, which existed beyond known singing habits. The audience reflected to this with a thunderous applause.”
SCORE:

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NOTE 1:  A cataphora is a linguistic/grammatic device.

Cataphora (/kəˈtæfərə/; from Greek, καταφορά, kataphora, “a downward motion” from κατά, kata, “downwards” and φέρω, pherō, “I carry”) is the use of a word or phrase that refers to or stands for a later word or phrase
e.g., the pronoun he in “he may be 37, but Jeff behaves like a teenager”
In this sentence, the pronoun he (the cataphor) appears earlier than the noun Jeff (the postcedent) that it refers to. This is the reverse of the more normal pattern, “strict” anaphora, where a referring expression such as John or the soldier appears before any pronouns that reference it. Both cataphora and anaphora are types of endophora.
In my composition Cataphora, the multiple low frequency oscillators at the beginning of the piece are to be thought of as similar to the function of the pronoun “he” in the description above.

NOTE 2:  This piece was influenced by a sort of founding father of computational and information science, Ramon Llull (1308), who used geometrical figures and algebraic notation to demonstrate metaphysical principles. 

Cataphora is influenced by the Ars brevis of Ramon Llull (1308), which uses geometrical figures and algebraic notation to demonstrate alchemical and metaphysical principles (as well as ideas from philosophy, theology, jurisprudence, history, mathematics, astronomy, astrology). Llull is recognized as a pioneer of computation theory, especially due to his great influence on Gottfried Leibniz. Llull’s systems of organizing concepts using devices such as trees, ladders, and wheels, have been analyzed as classification systems. Some computer scientists have adopted Llull as a sort of founding father, claiming that his system of logic was the beginning of information science.

NOTE 3: Cataphora explores four extra-normal vocal behaviors.

1) Multiple low frequency oscillators, including the new development of vocal fold asymmetries with ventricular fold vibration.
2) Ordinario reinforced harmonic production (khoomei, sygyt, kargyraa) and variants including: a. triphonic reinforced harmonic featuring dynamic lingua-alveolar retraction, b. reinforced harmonic articulated with uvular/velar action.
3) Minton multiphonic (a form of biphonation brought into widespread usage by Phil Minton).
4) Articulatory movement sources (trills, flutter, ululation, rapid stops).
Spectrograms and recorded examples of the techniques behind the extra-normal voice behaviors in Cataphora are shown below.

TECHNIQUES USED IN CATAPHORA (SPECTROGRAMS WITH AUDIO):
I. MULTIPLE LOW FREQUENCY OSCILLATORS, VOCAL FOLDS/VENTRICULAR FOLDS

1. Ventricular Fold Vibration [VVF] in mid-range with non-modal Vocal Fold [VF} pitch with instance of biphonation [sung by M. Edgerton]

1_VF hi biphonation w VVF midrange_25p

From 0 – 6”, this is a triphonic sequence: A) a quasi-glottal whistle at 587 Hz produced by the vocal folds (VF); B) a quasi-modal pitch singing the following pitches g (196Hz) – a (220 Hz) – g (196Hz) produced by VF; C) Ventricular Vocal Fold (VVF) oscillation producing a low stable pitch. From 6 – 10”, the quasi-glottal whistle drops out, leaving the VF&VVF subharmonic to crescendo. From 10” to end, the VF&VVF subharmonic continues, while the quasi-glottal whistle reappears; at ca 13” a lower voice, at 130 Hz appears at low amplitude.

1

2. Ventricular Fold Vibration [VVF] is perceived higher than normal due to a filtering effect, combined with Vocal Fold [VF] oscillation and slight harmonic reinforcement [sung by M. Edgerton].

2_VVF midrange and filtered w VFpitch_25p

The fundamental frequency, produced by VF is approximately 222 Hz, while the frequency of VVF is approximately one-third of VF. However, the perception of the VVF clicks are higher than normally heard in Chant-Production, as they seem to be in midrange, presumably due to extreme supraglottal filtering due to the medial compression associated with the unusual mode of phonation. Additionally, this sample features slight harmonic reinforcement involving movement between harmonics #10 and #12. In the spectra, a frequency component that aligns with harmonic #3 assumes the spectral peak (strongest amplitude).

2_FFT

3. High Vocal Fold [VF] asymmetry with slight Ventricular Fold Vibration [VVF] in the background [sung by M. Edgerton].

3_VFasymm hi w VFF slight_25p

Example 3 begins with a quasi-glottal whistle at approximately 523 Hz (pitch c). At 5”, the quasi-glottal whistle alternates with quasi-modal pitches at approximately 220Hz (pitch a) and 196Hz (pitch g). At approximately 12” the alternating high and low VF pitches begin to overlap, producing sequences of biphonation. At 18” VVF oscillation appears as soft clicks at low amplitude underneath the two dominant VF produced tones. Here, the two VF tones once again alternate (18”) and then overlap (23”) with each other. At 30”the two VF tones and the VVF clicks produce an irregular tremolo.

3

4. Vocal Fold [VF] asymmetry with Ventricular Fold Vibration [VVF], transitioning from low to high [sung by M. Edgerton].

4_VFasymm w VFF_transition from lo to hi_full spectrogram_25p

Vocal fold asymmetries combine with VVF vibration alternating in irregular patterns. The VF pitch begins on D (73Hz) simultaneously with VVF vibration. At approximately 3.5” a quasi-glottal whistle produces a pitch alternating between c and c#, while the VF and VVF subharmonic continues. At 11” all three elements begin to disrupt even further the texture in an iterative, tremolo-like pattern.

4

5. Low pitched Vocal Fold [VF] asymmetry with Ventricular Fold Vibration [VVF] [sung by M. Edgerton].

5_VFasymm w VFF - low freq_25p

This is a homophonic passage combining VF with VVF phonation. It is possible that the VF oscillation is biphonic. The dominant VF pitches are: 1-5”, pitches D (73Hz) and C# (69Hz); 5-19”, D (73Hz) and C natural (65Hz); 19-31”, D (73Hz) and B (61Hz).
6. Vocal Folds [VF] combine with Ventricular Fold Vibration [VVF] [sung by M. Edgerton].

6_VFchant-like alternate w VFasymm w VFF_25p

From 1-4”, the VF produce an imitation of Tibetan chant. From 4-6”, an extreme filter affects the initial chant sound. From 6-11”, VF asymmetries is combined with VVF vibration to produce irregular and unstable sonorities. From 11-16”, a stable chant-like production is shown with a slight harmonic reinforcement.
7. Quasi-chant, produced through asymmetry of Vocal Fold [VF] oscillation [sung by M. Edgerton].

7_VFchant-like_25p

Imitation of Tibetan chant using vocal fold asymmetry to produce both tones. From 0 – 2”, a VF quasi-chant appears. From 2-5”, harmonic #5 is reinforced. From 5-6.5”, the VF chant reappears. From 6.5-9”, the  reinforced 5th harmonic resolves to a reinforced 4th harmonic. The fundamental pitch is f# at 185Hz; while harmonic #5 is at 828Hz, while harmonic 4 is at 723Hz.

7_FFT h4 6-9 seconds

8. Quasi-chant2, produced through asymmetry of Vocal Fold [VF] oscillation [sung by M. Edgerton].

8_VFchant-like2_25p

Imitation of Tibetan chant using vocal fold asymmetry to produce both tones. The fundamental frequency is at the pitch g (196Hz), while the subharmonic is at ½ the frequency.

8_FFT subh at one half

9. Quasi-chant, produced through a combination of Vocal Fold [VF] and Ventricular Fold Vibration [VVF] [sung by M Edgerton].

9_VVF ord_25p

Chant features two fundamental frequencies. In this example, the upper fundamental frequency is produced by the vocal folds, while the subharmonic is produced by the ventricular folds. The VF produces a tone at approximately 170 Hz, while the VVF subharmonic is at 1/3 of the fundamental frequency.

9_FFT VVF chant - VVF of 60Hz

10. Quasi-chant2, produced through a combination of Vocal Fold [VF] and Ventricular Fold Vibration [VVF] [sung by M. Edgerton].

10_VVF ord2_25p

Chant features two fundamental frequencies. In this example, the upper fundamental frequency is produced by the vocal folds, while the subharmonic is produced by the ventricular folds. The VF produces a tone at approximately 196 Hz, while the VVF subharmonic is at 1/3 of the fundamental frequency.
11. Quasi-chant3, produced through a combination of Vocal Fold [VF] and Ventricular Fold Vibration [VVF], in a pressed mode [sung by M. Edgerton].

11_VVF ord3_25p

Chant features two fundamental frequencies. In this example, the upper fundamental frequency is produced by the vocal folds, while the subharmonic is produced by the ventricular folds. The VF produces a tone at approximately 196 Hz, while the VVF subharmonic is at 1/3 of the fundamental frequency. Compared to #10, the example is a less full, narrower sound that results from pressed phonation.

11_FFT VVF chant VVF one third of VF

12. Quasi-chant4, produced through a combination of Vocal Fold [VF] and Ventricular Fold Vibration [VVF], in a pressed mode [sung by M. Edgerton].

12_VVF w slight vowel change_25p

Chant features two fundamental frequencies. In this example, the upper fundamental frequency is produced by the vocal folds, while the subharmonic is produced by the ventricular folds. The VF produces a tone at approximately 196 Hz, while the VVF subharmonic is at 1/3 of the fundamental frequency.

12_FFT VVF one tirhd approx of VF

II. REINFORCED HARMONIC PRODUCTION AND VARIANTS

13. Sigit [sung by Mergen Mongush]

13_sigit_1800x975

Sigit is produced with the tongue tip on the alveolar ridge, with the mid-tongue rising towards the palate and the tongue root moving anteriorly in the pharynx as the reinforced harmonics rise and vice-versa for descending reinforced harmonic movement. Note the energy band near 3kHz, which is similar to the phenomena seen in operatic singers, known as the singer’s formant. In this example, the singer plays the harmonics between 6 and 13.
14. Khoomei [sung by Kaigal-ool Xovalyg]

14_khoomei_1800x975

This is produced by the tongue moving forwards and backwards between a forward /i/ and a low /u/. Note that, in this example, the 3rd harmonic carries the greatest amplitude (spectral peak). The harmonics sung in this example are from #7 through #13. Note that harmonics #7, 11, 13 are used as grace notes to other more stable tones.
15. Kargyraa [sung by Kaigal-ool Xovalyg]

15_kargyraa__1800x975

Another instance of the combination of VF and VVF oscillation. In this example, the lowest tone, D, is produced with the VVF at 71Hz. It might not be appropriate to call this a subharmonic as the singer reinforces a tone 9 harmonics above the lowest tone. That means that IF the fundamental period is an octave higher (with the subharmonic at ½), then the harmonic in question would be #4.5; which is not possible, since harmonics are whole number multiples of the F0.
16. Nasal articulated with velopharyngeal port opening and closing [sung by Demetrio Stratos]

16_vp stratos_1800x975

A unique variation on reinforced harmonic singing, in which nasal reinforced harmonics are articulated by the release of the velopharyngeal flap that separates the pharynx from nasal cavity. In this example, Stratos plays the (reinforced) harmonics between 3 and 7. The velopharyngeal articulations are seen by the vertical striations on the spectrogram.
17. Loo-Loo [sung by Jan Heinke]

17_LooLoo_Heinke_1800x975

This is a special reinforced harmonic variation that was discovered by Jan Heinke. In this procedure the singer reinforces a harmonic with the tongue on the alveolar ridge (similar to sygyt). Then the singer abruptly releases and reattaches the tongue. The effect is producing a grace note upon a sustained reinforced harmonic. In this example, the grace note features the same pitch as the sustained tone. However, other harmonics may be reinforced on the release by rapid movement within the oral cavity, simultaneously with the tongue release. The lingual articulations are seen by the vertical striations on the spectrogram. Cataphora exploits this ability to produce (reinforced harmonic) grace notes different than the sustained reinforced harmonic.

17_loo loo schematic

18. Borbangnadyr [sung by Ayan Shirizhik]

18_borbangnadyr_Alash_1800x975

Borbangnadyr is a method of reinforced harmonic production that uses wide vibrato and lip quivering to produce the illusion of two reinforced harmonics. In this example, from 84 to 90.5” the singer reinforces harmonic 12. Then using wide vibrato and lip quivering, the singer gives the illusion of producing three tones (upper and lower neighboring tones to the 12th harmonic). In my composition Cataphora, I ask the singer to produce non-neighboring reinforced harmonics.

III. MINTON MULTIPHONIC

19. Minton multiphonic [sung by Phil Minton]

19_minton mult

Produced through asymmetry of VF oscillation, this biphonic sequence is produced entirely in falsetto. Musically, the passage features a descending sequence in the lower voice, while the upper voice follows the descending movement at a minor third.

19_minton mult music notation

20. quasi Minton Multiphonic [sung by Jan Heinke]

20_minton multiphonic_spec_1800x975

This multiphonic is unusual as it seemingly features the lower voice using modal phonation while the upper voice is in falsetto. The general contour of both voices is ascending, though there is local contrapuntal freedom, featuring contrary motion (the musical notation is slightly transposed).

20_minton multiphonic - heinke musical notation

IV. ARTICULATORY MOVEMENT SOURCES (trills, flutter, ululation, rapid stops).

21. Lip flutter with voice [sung by Jan Heinke]

21_lip flutter_1800x975

Lip flutter and voice. Beginning at approximately 142” the lip flutter and voice move in contrary motion, with the lip flutter moving up then down, while the voice moves down then up.
22. Tongue trill, front, mid, back [sung by M. Edgerton]

22_TT_1800x975

23. Ululation [sung by Jan Heinke]

23_ululation heinke_1800x975

Ululation is produced through movement of the tongue and uvula. Often the voice is high in register, and in this example, Jan Heinke is in falsetto voice.
24. Ululation, Iran [singer anon]

24_ululation_Iran_1800x975

The sung tone is approximately A#5 (905Hz). Note the striations in the spectra that represent the rapid tongue movements.
25. Ululation, Xhosa [singer anon]

25_ululation_Xhosa_1800x975

High pitched ululation at approximately C#6 (1100Hz).
26. Ululation, Morocco [singer anon]

26_Moroccan ululation_1800x975

From fast to slow ululation – gives strong impression of tongue movement.
27. Uvula trill [sung by M. Edgerton]

27_uvula trill_1800x975

Uvula trills, from 3 to 6” voiced; from 8 to 11” unvoiced.
28. Glottal stops [3 samples, sung by Jan Heinke, Angela Rademacher-Wingerath, Sainkho Namtchylak]

28_3 glottal stops_1800x975

Glottal stops may be nasal or non-nasal. There may be a pronounced register shift on the glottal pulses, or not. The speed of the glottal stops may vary between slow and rapid. Generally pressure is high, but the overall sound level need not be loud.

 

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